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Friday, March 14, 2008
Pagi2 tambah semangat, liat adik2 SMU makin giat belajar, UN 2008 makin dekat. NGgak ada yang bisa saya lakukan selain support dengan membagi link soal-soal UN agar bisa di download, dipelajari, dan harapannya.. semoga semua sukses! Link kali ini dapatnya dari http://ujiannasional.web.id/UN/
SEMOGA BERMANFAAT… (maaf, baru cek ternyata butuh login…. cape de.)

PLEASE klick this site


your best regard

Armin Ade
posted by Armin Ade @ 11:38 AM   0 comments
Sunday, January 6, 2008
Hello Dipta,
nice to see you. I havent heard from you for along time, let me know how is your going now?
posted by Armin Ade @ 5:43 PM   0 comments
Saturday, August 11, 2007

Indonesia Table of Contents

The character of Indonesia's educational system reflects its diverse religious heritage, its struggle for a national identity, and the challenge of resource allocation in a poor but developing archipelagic nation with a young and rapidly growing population. Although a draft constitution stated in 1950 that a key government goal was to provide every Indonesian with at least six years of primary schooling, the aim of universal education had not been reached by the late 1980s, particularly among females--although great improvements had been made. Obstacles to meeting the government's goal included a high birth rate, a decline in infant mortality, and a shortage of schools and qualified teachers. In 1973 Suharto issued an order to set aside portions of oil revenues for the construction of new primary schools. This act resulted in the construction or repair of nearly 40,000 primary school facilities by the late 1980s, a move that greatly facilitated the goal of universal education.

Primary and Secondary Education

Following kindergarten, Indonesians of between seven and twelve years of age were required to attend six years of primary school in the 1990s. They could choose between state-run, nonsectarian public schools supervised by the Department of Education and Culture or private or semiprivate religious (usually Islamic) schools supervised and financed by the Department of Religious Affairs. However, although 85 percent of the Indonesian population was registered as Muslim, according to the 1990 census, less than 15 percent attended religious schools. Enrollment figures were slightly higher for girls than boys and much higher in Java than the rest of Indonesia.

A central goal of the national education system in the early 1990s was not merely to impart secular wisdom about the world, but also to instruct children in the principles of participation in the modern nation-state, its bureaucracies, and its moral and ideological foundations. Since 1975, a key feature of the national curriculum--as in other parts of society--had been instruction in the Pancasila. Children age six and above learned its five principles--belief in one God, humanitarianism, national unity, democracy, and social justice--by rote and were instructed daily to apply the meanings of this key national symbol to their lives. The alleged communist coup attempt in 1965 provided a vivid image of transgression against the Pancasila. Partly to prove their rejection of communist ideology, all teachers--like other members of Indonesian bureaucracy--swore allegiance not only to the Pancasila, but to the government party of functional groups.

Inside the public school classroom of the early 1990s, a style of pedagogy prevailed that emphasized rote learning and deference to the authority of the teacher. Although the youngest children were sometimes allowed to use the local language, by the third year of primary school nearly all instruction was conducted in formal Indonesian. Instead of asking questions of the students, a standard teaching technique was to narrate a historical event or to describe a mathematical problem, pausing at key junctures to allow the students to fill in the blanks. By not responding to individual problems of the students and retaining an emotionally distanced demeanor, the teacher is said to be sabar (patient), which is considered admirable behavior.

Nationally, the average class size in primary schools was approximately twenty-seven, while upper-level classes included between thirty and forty students. Ninety-two percent of primary school students graduated, but only about 60 percent of those continued on to junior high school (ages thirteen through fifteen). Of those who went on to junior high school, 87 percent also went on to a senior high school (ages sixteen through eighteen). The national adult literacy rate remained at about 77 percent in 1991 (84 percent for males and 68 percent for females), keeping Indonesia tied with Brunei for the lowest literacy among the six member nations of the Association for Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).

In the early 1990s, after completion of the six-year primary school program, students could choose among a variety of vocational and preprofessional junior and senior high schools, each level of which was three years in duration. There were academic and vocational junior high schools that could lead to senior-level diplomas. There were also "domestic science" junior high schools for girls. At the senior high-school level, there were three-year agricultural, veterinary, and forestry schools open to students who had graduated from an academic junior high school. Special schools at the junior and senior levels taught hotel management, legal clerking, plastic arts, and music.

Teacher training programs were varied, and were gradually upgraded. For example, in the 1950s anyone completing a teacher training program at the junior high level could obtain a teacher's certificate. Since the 1970s, however, the teaching profession was restricted to graduates of a senior high school for teachers in a primary school and to graduates of a university-level education course for teachers of higher grades. Remuneration for primary and secondary school teachers compared favorably with countries such as Malaysia, India, and Thailand. Student-teacher ratios also compared favorably with most Asian nations at 25.3 to 1 and 15.3 to 1, respectively, for primary and secondary schools in the mid-1980s when the averages were 33.1 to 1 and 22.6 to 1 for Asian-Pacific countries.

Islamic Schools

The emphasis on the Pancasila in public schools has been resisted by some of the Muslim majority. A distinct but vocal minority of these Muslims prefer to receive their schooling in a pesantren or residential learning center. Usually in rural areas and under the direction of a Muslim scholar, pesantren are attended by young people seeking a detailed understanding of the Quran, the Arabic language, the sharia, and Muslim traditions and history. Students could enter and leave the pesantren any time of the year, and the studies were not organized as a progression of courses leading to graduation. Although not all pesantren were equally orthodox, most were and the chief aim was to produce good Muslims.

In order for students to adapt to life in the modern, secular nation-state, the Muslim-dominated Department of Religious Affairs advocated the spread of a newer variety of Muslim school, the madrasa. In the early 1990s, these schools integrated religious subjects from the pesantren with secular subjects from the Western-style public education system. The less-than 15 percent of the school-age population who attended either type of Islamic schools did so because of the perceived higher quality instruction. However, among Islamic schools, a madrasa was ranked lower than a pesantren. Despite the widespread perception in the West of resurgent Islamic orthodoxy in Muslim countries, the 1980s saw little overall increase in the role of religion in school curricula in Indonesia.

In general, Indonesia's educational system still faced a shortage of resources in the 1990s. The shortage of staffing in Indonesia's schools was no longer as acute as in the 1950s, but serious difficulties remained, particularly in the areas of teacher salaries, teacher certification, and finding qualified personnel. Providing textbooks and other school equipment throughout the farflung archipelago continued to be a significant problem as well.

Higher Education

Indonesia's institutions of higher education have experienced dramatic growth since independence. In 1950 there were ten institutions of higher learning, with a total of 6,500 students. In 1970 there were 450 private and state institutions enrolling 237,000 students, and by 1990 there were 900 institutions with 141,000 teachers and nearly 1,486,000 students. Public institutions enjoyed a considerably better student-teacher ratio (14 to 1) than private institutions (46 to 1) in the mid-1980s. Approximately 80 to 90 percent of state university budgets were financed by government subsidies, although the universities had considerably more autonomy in curriculum and internal structure than primary and secondary schools. Whereas tuition in such state institutions was affordable, faculty salaries were low by international standards. Still, university salaries were higher than primary and secondary school salaries. In addition, lecturers often had other jobs outside the university to supplement their wages.

Private universities were operated by foundations. Unlike state universities, private institutions had budgets that were almost entirely tuition driven. Each student negotiated a one-time registration fee--which could be quite high--at the time of entry. If a university had a religious affiliation, it could finance some of its costs through donations or grants from international religious organizations. The government provided only limited support for private universities.

Higher education in the early 1990s offered a wide range of programs, many of which were in a state of flux. Nearly half of all students enrolled in higher education in 1985 were social sciences majors. Humanities and science and technology represented nearly 28 percent and 21 percent, respectively. The major degrees granted were the sarjana muda (junior scholar; roughly corresponding to a bachelor's degree) and the sarjana (scholar or master's degree). Very few doktor (doctoral) degrees were awarded. Few students studying for the sarjana muda actually finished in one to three years. One study found that only 10 to 15 percent of students finished their course of study on time, partly because of the requirement to complete the traditional skripsi (thesis). In 1988, for instance, 235,000 new students were admitted for sarjana muda-level training and 1,234,800 were enrolled at various stages of the program, but only 95,600 graduated.

Discussion about how to improve Indonesian higher education focused on issues of teacher salaries, laboratory and research facilities, and professor qualifications. According to official figures, in 1984 only 13.9 percent of permanent faculty members at state institutions of higher learning had any advanced degree; only 4.5 percent had a doctorate. Since doctoral programs were rare in Indonesia and there was little money to support education overseas, this situation improved only slowly. Despite these difficulties, most institutions of higher education received large numbers of applications in the late 1980s and early 1990s; in state institutions less than one application in four was accepted. One of the most serious problems for graduates with advanced degrees, however, was finding employment suited to their newly acquired education.

The University of Indonesia, founded in Jakarta in the 1930s, is the nation's oldest university. Other major universities include Gadjah Mada University (Indonesia's oldest postindependence university, founded in 1946) in Yogyakarta; Catholic University and Institut Teknologi Bandung, both in Bandung; and the Institut Pertanian Bogor in Bogor. In the early 1990s, there also were important regional universities in Sulawesi, Sumatera Utara, Jawa Barat, and Irian Jaya.

posted by Armin Ade @ 9:21 AM   0 comments
Thursday, July 19, 2007
Teaching listening to the first years students
Brown defines teaching as showing or helping someone to learn, instruction, guiding in the study of something, providing knowledge and causing to know or understand. In the other words teaching is guiding and facilitating learning, enabling the learners to learn, improve their skills and attitudes.
Byrne (1981: 42) states that listening is a process of orally grasping and decoding the signs a listener directly hear. In a listening process a listener understands and translates the messages addressed to her into meaning in her mind. Listening is an internal process that can not be directly observed.
Students should master certain elements of language in order to listen success fully. The elements are sounds, vocabulary, grammatical structure, and pronunciation. By mastering those elements the learning will have a good listening skill. Students can improve the listening skill including understanding keywords of finding background knowledge to help complete their understanding by listening again and again.
Development of listening skill.
In the teaching of listening there are three elements in the process of developing listening skills. They are:

Access to ward
In order to comprehend a sentence the students have to work out what the words mean. The mind has to relate the words that are heard to the information that is store about them in the mind of their meaning.

Parsing is how the mind works out the grammatical structure and meaning of sentences and hears. The process of parsing can be bottom up or top up. Bottom up is building the sentences up in our mind bit by bit, putting the sounds into words. The words are in phrases and phrases into whole sentences. Top Down means that starting from the whole sentences and breaking it down into smaller and smaller bits.

Bottom up listening activities.
The learners are focused on the individual element of the building blocks of the language. Decode oral utterance by discriminating between individual sound, identifying different stress, rhythm, and intonation pattern. The students are gradually moved from sound to word to sentence to text.

Top Down listening activities
In top down activities, the listening get general view of the listening passage by b absorbing its overall view. The meaning is not only stated in the message but also in the listener’s mind. The listener uses her own concept in understanding the message. She decides that the message she hears in certain words.

Memory processes of cognition
Memory processes in listening are connected to bottom up and top down. All comprehension depends on the storing and processing of information by the mind.

Top Down Approach
Students use their background knowledge about the topic, the text and the context in predicting and confirming their understanding in top down approach. The lesson starts by encouraging students to actively construct the meaning of the speaker using incoming sounds as clues. The listeners use their prior knowledge of the context and situation which the listening activity takes place in order to make sense of what they hear in the reconstruction process. Schema theory is related with top down approach. Schema theory is based on the notion that prior experiences lead to the creation of frameworks that make sense of new experiences.
The sound language listening is an active process involving background schema. The top down approach emphasizes the importance of the activation of learners’ knowledge and experience in understanding task.

There are three stages of teaching listening by using top down process:

Pre-listening activity.
It is to prepare students activities their background knowledge, experience, and explain difficult vocabulary items. Pre-listening activities help students make decision about what to listen for and to focus attention on meaning while listening. Teachers prepare the students for what they will hear and what they are expected to do. First, the students need to bring to consciousness their knowledge of the topic, and their knowledge of now information is organized in different texts. Second, the purpose of listening must be established in order that the students can find out the specific to anticipate what they might hear by using all the available in formation.
Example: the teacher can use a topic of warm up activities such as “have you ever visited Borobudur Temple?” what did you do in Borobudur Temple?”

While-listening activity.
It is to focus student’s attention on key ideas in the text. The students develop the skill of eliciting message. During the listening activity, the students monitor their comprehension and make decision about their strategy. The teacher can help the students develop their skills of eliciting messages. For instances are:
Listen to a dialogue and decide where the conversation took place or happened.
Listen to a dialogue and decide what the people are talking about.
Listen to a dialogue and decide how many questions you hear.

Post-listening activity
it is to ensure the student’s comprehension of the messages. It consists of extensions and development of listening task. Students need to evaluate the results of decisions made during a listening task. Class discussion on the approach by students can stimulate reflection and evaluation. The students about the effectiveness of the strategies they use.
The discussion of teaching listening using top Down Approach is expected to provide some contribution to improve the teaching of English at Senior High School.
posted by Armin Ade @ 4:21 PM   0 comments
Wednesday, July 18, 2007
Syllabus is a document with an outline and summary of topics to be covered in a course. It is often either set out by an exam board, or prepared by the professor who teaches the course, and is usually given to each student during the first class session. A syllabus usually contains specific information about the course, such as information on how, where and when to contact the lecturer and teaching assistants; an outline of what will be covered in the course; a schedule of test dates and the due dates for assignments; the grading policy for the course; specific classroom rules; etc.
Within many courses concluding in an exam, syllabi are used to ensure consistency between schools and that all teachers know what must be taught and what is not required. Exams can only test based on information included in the syllabus.
The common plural form syllabi is sometimes considered a hypercorrection, as we do not know that syllabus is a second-declension Latin noun, simply because there are not enough classical uses of the term to definitively discern its declension. If, as the vast majority of Latin nouns ending in "-us", "syllabus" belongs to the second-declension, the plural would be syllabi; if fourth, the plural would again be syllabus. For this reason, syllabi, syllabus, and syllabuses are all commonly accepted. However, the word syllabus originally comes from a mis-transliteration by Cicero, who mis-copied the word σιττύβας (accusative plural of σιττύβα, meaning label or title page) as syllabos, making any Latin-ized plural form technically incorrect.
The syllabus serves many purposes for the students and the teacher such as 1) ensuring a fair and upfront contract between the instuctor and students such that there is mimimal confusion on policies relating to the course, 2) setting clear expectations of a) material to be learned, b) behavior in the classroom, and c) effort of student's behalf to be put into the course, 3) providing a roadmap of course organization/direction 4) relaying the instructor's teaching philosophy to the students, and 5) providing a marketing angle of the course such that students may choose early in the course whether the subject material is attractive.
Many items can be included in a syllabus to maximize course organization and student understanding of expected material such as 1) grading policy (grading scale optional but helpful), 2) locations and times (classroom location/time, instructor office hours and location, teaching assistant office hours and location), 3) other contact information for instructor and teaching assistant such as phone or email, 4) materials required and/or recommended such as textbooks, assigned reading books, calculators (or other equipment), lab vouchers, etc 5) outside resources for subject material assistance (extra-curricular books, tutor locations, resource centers, etc), 6) important dates in course such as exams and paper due-dates 7) tips for succeeding in mastering course content such as study habits and expected time allotment, 8) suggested problems if applicable 9) necessary pre-requisites or co-requisites to current course, 10) safety rules if appropriate, and most importantly 11) objectives of course.
The syllabus must be clear and organized in its presentation of course objectives and the grading break-down should leave no confusion or doubt in the student's mind as to how she or he is scoring in the class. A helpful syllabus should encourage rather than intimidate students from the course and should provide a broad overpanning of subject significance as well as illustrate connectiveness of material relevance through the lecture schedule.
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posted by Armin Ade @ 12:36 AM   0 comments


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